The antiknock index of automotive spark-ignition engine fuels is defined by the conjunction of the Motor octane number with the Research octane number. The antiknock index of a fuel approximates the road octane ratings for many vehicles is posted on retail dispensing pumps in the United States and Canada, and is referred to in vehicle manuals.
Antiknock Index = (R + M)/2
Carbon Residue - FCR - ASTM D4530
This test method covers the determination of the amount of carbon residue formed after evaporation and pyrolysis of diesel fuel and is intended to provide some indication of its relative coke forming tendency. This test method offers advantages of better control of test conditions, smaller samples, and less operator attention compared to Test Method D189, to which it is equivalent. The test results are equivalent to the Conradson Carbon Residue test.
Cetane Index - FCI - ASTM D976/4737
Fuel Cetane Index is a measure of a diesel fuel's ignition quality. The calculated Cetane Index formula directly estimates the ASTM Cetane number of distillate fuels from the API (America Petroleum Institute) gravity and mid-boiling point. For additional information please view our September, October, November and December 2013 Newsletters.
Cetane Number - FCN - ASTM D613
The cetane number provides a measure of the ignition characteristics of diesel fuel oil in compression ignition engines. This test method is used as a primary specification measurement related to matching of fuels and engines.
Cloud Point - FCLP - ASTM D2500
The Cloud point indicates the temperature at which crystals of paraffin wax start forming in liquid, which leads to obstruction of filtration systems. Fuel is prepared specifically in order to have a cloud point lower than the ambient temperature of the surrounding environment in which it will be used.
Karl Fischer Water Test - FKF - ASTM D4928
The Karl Fischer Water Titration Test is used for components and applications where water contamination can cause severe lubricant breakdown and must be kept extremely low. The Karl Fischer titration method measures and reports water content as a percentage (e.g. 0.005% = 50 ppm).
Distillation is a separation technique for mixtures of petroleum products, each with a different boiling point. This boiling point determination method allows estimating the cetane index of the diesel fuel and its self-ignition properties (ignition quality). ASTM D 86 determines the temperature at which 95 % of the diesel fuel is distillated. Reducing the boiling point slightly lowers the NOx emissions but increases Hydrocarbons and CO emissions.
Electrical Conductivity - FEC - ASTM D2624
The ability of a fuel to dissipate charge that has been generated during pumping and filtering operations is controlled by its electrical conductivity. If the conductivity is sufficiently high, charges dissipate fast enough to prevent their accumulation and dangerously high potentials in a receiving tank are avoided. These test methods cover the determination of the electrical conductivity of aviation and distillate fuels with and without a static dissipator additive. The test methods normally give a measurement of the conductivity when the fuel is uncharged, that is, electrically at rest (known as the rest conductivity).
Flash Point Pensky-Martens Closed Cup - FFPCC - ASTM D93
The closed cup method determines flash point of fuels and liquids containing suspended solids and liquids that tend to form a surface film during testing. This method is extensively used in the transport industries and safety regulations for detection of contamination by volatile and flammable materials in fuel oils and for characterization of hazardous waste samples.
Gas Chromatography Analysis (Biofuel) - FGCB -
In biofuels, FGCB measures the free and total glycerin content in pure biodiesel (B100) fuel. A high content of free and total glycerin can lead to buildup in fuel tanks, clogged fuel systems, injector fouling and valve deposits. The determination of glycerin levels by GCB provides verification that the free glycerin, mono-glycerides, di-glycerides, tri-glycerides, and total glycerin contents in B100 are lower than the limit.
ICP Spectrometric Analysis - FSP -
Elemental Analysis by ICP detects up to 23 elements that can be present in fuel due to mechanical wear, contamination or additive depletion. Spectrometric analysis is an effective method for monitoring small particles. Severe wear particles larger than 6 microns cannot be detected accurately.
Lubricity - FLUB - ASTM D6079
This test method covers the evaluation of the lubricity of diesel fuels using a high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). It is also applicable to biodiesel blends. Diesel fuel injection equipment has some reliance on lubricating properties of the diesel fuel. Shortened life of engine components, such as diesel fuel injection pumps and injectors, has sometimes been ascribed to lack of lubricity in a diesel fuel. The HFRR may be used to evaluate the relative effectiveness of diesel fuels for preventing wear.
Motor Octane Number - FMN - ASTM D2700
The Motor Octane Number correlates with commercial automotive spark-ignition engine antiknock performance under severe conditions of operation. Motor O.N. is used as a primary specification measurement related to the matching of fuels and engines
Oxygenate Content - FXC - ASTM D4815
Oxygenates are fuel additives that contain oxygen, usually in the form of alcohol or ether. Oxygenates can enhance fuel combustion and thereby reduce exhaust emissions. Some oxygenates also boost gasoline octane. The Clean Air Act requires use of oxygenated gasoline in areas where winter time carbon monoxide levels exceed federal air quality standards. Without oxygenated gasoline, carbon monoxide emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles tend to increase in cold weather. This test method is applicable to both quality control in the production of gasoline and for the determination of deliberate or extraneous oxygenate additions or contamination.
Particle Count - FPC - ISO 4406
Research Octane Number - FRN - ASTM D2699
The Research octane number correlates with commercial automotive spark-ignition engine antiknock performance under mild conditions of operation. It is used as a primary specification measurement related to the matching of fuels and engines. Research O.N., in conjunction with Motor O.N., defines the antiknock index of automotive spark-ignition engine fuels, in accordance. The antiknock index of a fuel approximates the Road octane ratings for many vehicles, is posted on retail dispensing pumps in the U.S., and is referred to in vehicle manuals.
Sulphated ASH - FASH - ASTM D482
This test method covers the determination of ash in the range 0.001–0.180 mass %, from distillate and residual fuels, gas turbine fuels. Knowledge of the amount of ash-forming material present in a product can provide information if whether or not the product is suitable for use in a given application. Ash can result from oil or water-soluble metallic compounds or from extraneous solids such as dirt and rust which are normally considered to be undesirable impurities or contaminants.
Sulphur Content - FSC - ASTM D4294
This test method covers the determination of total sulfur in diesel fuel, jet fuel, kerosene, unleaded gasoline, gasoline-ethanol blends, biodiesel, etc. It provides a means of determining whether the sulfur content of petroleum or a petroleum product meets specification or regulatory limits
Vapor Pressure - FVP - ASTM D5191
Vapor pressure determines the volatility of gasoline. The vapor pressure of gasoline and gasoline-oxygenate blends is regulated by EPA and Environment Canada. Specifications generally include vapor pressure limits to ensure products of suitable volatility performance in order to reduce gasoline emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are a major contributor to ground-level ozone (smog).
Viscosity at 40 °C - FVIS40 - ASTM D445
Viscosity examines the thickness or thinness of the fuel. The test measures the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity, determining the kinematic viscosity at 40 °C. Equipment manufacturers specify viscosity when indicating machine tolerance, bearing loads and the rate of heat removal. Viscosity must be tested at the operating temperature of the equipment, i.e.: 40 °C.
Water and Sediments - FWS - ASTM D2709
This test method is used as an indication of free water and sediment suspended as haze, cloudiness, or droplets in middle distillate fuels. Appreciable amounts of free water and sediment tend to cause fouling of fuel-handling facilities and to give trouble in the fuel system of a burner or engine. An accumulation of sediment in storage tanks and on filter screens can obstruct the flow of oil from the tank to the combustor. Free water can cause corrosion of tanks and equipment, and if detergent is present, the water can cause emulsions or a hazy appearance. Free water can support microbiological growth at fuel-water interfaces in fuel systems.