This specification covers seven grades of diesel fuel oils suitable for various types of diesel engines. These grades are: Grade No. 1-D S15; Grade No. 1-D S500; Grade No. 1-D S5000; Grade No. 2-D S15; Grade No. 2-D S500; Grade No. 2-D S5000; and Grade No. 4-D. The requirements specified for diesel fuel oils shall be determined in accordance with the following test methods: flash point; cloud point; water and sediment; carbon residue; ash; distillation; viscosity; sulfur; copper corrosion; cetane number; cetane index; aromaticity; lubricity; and conductivity.
蒸馏是一种石油产品混合物的分离技术，每种沸点不同。 这种沸点测定方法允许估算柴油的十六烷指数及其自燃特性（点火质量）。 ASTM D 86确定了95％的柴油蒸馏的温度。 降低沸点会降低NOx的排放量，但会增加碳氢化合物和一氧化碳的排放量。
Doctor Test - ASTM D4952 (代码: FDR)
This test method covers and is intended primarily for the detection of mercaptans in motor fuel, kerosene, and similar petroleum products. It may also provide information on hydrogen sulfide and elemental sulfur in these products. Sulfur present as mercaptans or as hydrogen sulfide in distillate fuels and solvents can attack many metallic and non-metallic materials in fuel and other distribution systems.
Naphthalene, when burned, tends to have a relatively larger contribution to a sooty flame, smoke, and thermal radiation than single ring aromatics. The test determines, by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, the total concentration of naphthalene, acenaphthene, and alkylated derivatives of these hydrocarbons in jet fuels.
This test method covers the gravimetric determination by filtration of particulate contaminant in a sample of aviation turbine fuel. The objective is to minimize these contaminants to avoid filter plugging and other operational problems.
This test method covers the determination of the presence of water-miscible components in aviation gasoline and turbine fuels, and the effect of these components on volume change and on the fuel-water interface.
Smoke Point – Aviation Fuel - ASTM D1322 (代码: FSMP)
This test method provides an indication of the relative smoke producing properties of kerosene and aviation turbine fuels in a diffusion flame. A high smoke point indicates a fuel of low smoke producing tendency. Because radiant heat transfer exerts a strong influence on the metal temperature of combustor liners and other hot section parts of gas turbines, the smoke point provides a basis for correlation of fuel characteristics with the life of these components.
This test method covers the determination of hydrocarbon types over concentration ranges by volume aromatics, olefins, and saturates in petroleum fractions that distill below 315 °C. This test is important in 1) characterizing the quality of petroleum fractions as gasoline blending components and as feeds to catalytic reforming processes; 2) in characterizing petroleum fractions and products from catalytic reforming and from thermal and catalytic cracking as blending components for motor and aviation fuels and 3) as a measure of the quality of fuels.
This guide presents some generally accepted laboratory methodologies that are used for determining emulsion forming tendencies, wetting behavior, and corrosion-inhibitory properties of crude oil. Trace amounts of water and sediment have the potential to create corrosive situations during handling or transport if they accumulate and persist on steel surfaces. This potential can be determined by a combination of the type of emulsion formed between oil and water, the wettability of the steel surface, and the corrosivity of water phase in the presence of oil.
Freezing Point - Aviation Fuel - ASTM D2386 (代码: FFPT)
The freezing point of an aviation fuel is the lowest temperature at which it remains free of solid hydrocarbon crystals that can restrict the flow of fuel through filters if present in the fuel system of the aircraft. The temperature of the fuel in the aircraft tank normally falls during flight depending on aircraft speed, altitude, and flight duration. The freezing point must always be lower than the minimum operational tank temperature. This test determines the temperature below which solid hydrocarbon crystals may form in aviation turbine fuels and aviation gasoline.
Standard Test Method for Measurement of Fuel System Icing Inhibitors (Ether Type) in Aviation Fuels measures the concentration of Diethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether (DiEGME) in aviation fuels. DiEGME is miscible with water and can be readily extracted from the fuel by contact with water during shipping and in storage. It is therefore needed to check the additive content in the fuel to ensure proper additive concentration in the aircraft.
Fuel System Icing Inhibitor - ASTM D5006 (代码: FSI)
This test allows the user to test aviation fuels for the proper amounts of FSII, fuel system icing inhibitor, using ASTM D5006, Standard Test method for Measurement of Fuel System Icing Inhibitors in Aviation Fuels
Gum Test - Aviation Fuel - ASTM D5006 (代码: FGUM)
This test determines the existent gum content of aviation fuels, motor gasolines or other volatile distillates in their finished form. In aviation turbine fuels, large quantities of gum are indicative of contamination by higher boiling oils or particulate matter and generally reflect poor handling practices in distribution downstream of the refinery. In gasoline, high gum can cause induction-system deposits and sticking of intake valves.